Faking A Dive In Soccer: Now a Scientifically-proven Way to Spot Cheaters

From Science Daily…

 

‘ScienceDaily (Oct. 10, 2009) — The game is up for football’s (soccer’s) divers: A new study by Dr Paul Morris from the University of Portsmouth could help referees know when a top player has genuinely been fouled or taken a dive.

Dr Morris, an expert on the embodiment of emotions and intentions in the Department of Psychology, says refs could be helped to spot the tell tale signs of cheating, sometimes even in the split seconds in which they occur.

“Referees have a very difficult job and given the demands of the task they do it remarkably well. We think even experienced professionals could enhance their decision-making by studying the categories of deceptive behaviour we have identified,” said Dr Morris.

Published in the Springer Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, and conducted in three separate studies, the research could also help by improving decisions based on video evidence.

Dr Morris’s research shows that there are distinct actions which footballers use – either individually or in any combination – when faking a fall. These include:

  • clutching their body where they haven’t been hit
  • taking an extra roll when they hit the ground
  • after being tackled taking fully controlled strides before falling
  • holding up both arms in the air, with open palms, chest thrust out, legs bent at the knee in an “archer’s bow” position

Soccer dive - Drogba

“In most dishonest tackles the behaviour itself does not indicate dishonesty – the deception is revealed in the timing and co-ordination of the behaviours,” said Dr Morris.

“But one action is unique to a faked fall – the archer’s bow. This occurs in many dives but biomechanically it does not occur in a natural fall. Instead instinctively the arms either go down in an attempt to cushion the fall or out to the side for balance.

“Although this behaviour is absurd, the fraudulent footballer does it to try to deceive the referee into believing that the tackle was illegal, and the histrionics are necessary to get the referee’s attention in the first place.

“This behaviour has no national boundaries; everyone does it, it even occurred unprompted during our research trials.”

Dr Morris said that a player who positions his body into this peculiar shape to show that he has been fouled as a result of a tackle looks quite bizarre.

“Moving the body like this is completely controlled behaviour so it clearly doesn’t show a genuine fall.

“The moment both arms go above the shoulder is a clear indication of deception,” he said.’

Having just coached a soccer tournament where I saw 1 or 2 suspect dives, this is highly interesting information in terms of the embodiment of emotion, and the actual trip vs. planned dive.

By the way, I love Drogba (pictured above). He is one of my favorite players. He is definitely taking a dive in this particular situation, however.

Have a wonderful week!

John Schinnerer, Ph.D.

Positive Psychology Coach

Guide To Self, Inc.

Danville, San Ramon, Alamo CA

Nearly Half of U.S. Children Exposed To Violence And Abuse In United States, New DOJ Study Finds

ScienceDaily (Oct. 7, 2009) — A new study from the University of New Hampshire finds that U.S. children are routinely exposed to even more violence and abuse than has been previously recognized, with nearly half experiencing a physical assault in the study year.

“Children experience far more violence, abuse and crime than do adults,” said David Finkelhor, director of the UNH Crimes against Children Research Center and the study director. “If life were this dangerous for ordinary grown-ups, we’d never tolerate it.”

The research was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) and supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The research results are presented in the journal Pediatrics and an Office of Justice Programs/OJJDP bulletin titled “Children’s Exposure to Violence: A Comprehensive National Survey.”

UNH researchers asked a national sample of U.S. children and their caregivers about a far broader range of exposures than has been done in the past.

According to the research, three out of five children were exposed to violence, abuse or a criminal victimization in the last year, including 46 percent who had been physically assaulted, 10 percent who had been maltreated by a caregiver, 6 percent who had been sexually victimized, and 10 percent who had witnessed an assault within their family.

The authors contend that earlier studies of violence exposure only inquired about individual crimes – looking only at bullying or child maltreatment or sexual abuse. In contrast, this study asked about all such exposures as well as additional ones that are rarely, if ever, covered such as dating violence and witnessing domestic violence.

The study found that more than a third of the children had had two or more different kinds of exposures in the past year and 11 percent had five or more.

“Studies have missed the fact that there are a surprisingly large group of very repeatedly and variously victimized kids whom we should be doing a better job to help and protect,” Finkelhor said.

The researchers urge teachers, police, doctors, counselors, and parents to ask children about a broader range of possible victimization experiences, especially children who had been identified as victims already. They also call for new efforts to create safer schools, homes and other youth environments.

The study was conducted in 2008 and involved interviews with caregivers and youth about the experiences of a nationally representative sample of 4,549 children ages 0-17. In addition to Finkelhor, the authors include Heather Turner, professor of sociology at UNH, Richard Ormrod, research professor of geography at UNH, and Sherry Hamby, research associate professor of psychology at Sewanee, the University of the South.

For full article, click here.

 

Let’s keep trying. We can do better, folks!

John Schinnerer, Ph.D.

Guide To Self, Inc.

San Ramon, Danville, Alamo

 

Lines Between Waking & Sleeping States Blurring – Are You Really Awake?

A fascinating, recent article from New Scientist and Laura Spinney on the recent findings around the blurred lines between being awake, being in REM state, and being in a non-REM sleeping state.

‘EARLIER this year, a puzzling report appeared in the journal Sleep Medicine. It described two Italian people who never truly slept. They might lie down and close their eyes, but read-outs of brain activity showed none of the normal patterns associated with sleep. Their behaviour was pretty odd, too. Though largely unaware of their surroundings during these rest periods, they would walk around, yell, tremble violently and their hearts would race. The remainder of the time they were conscious and aware but prone to powerful, dream-like hallucinations.

Both had been diagnosed with a neurodegenerative disorder called multiple system atrophy. According to the report’s authors, Roberto Vetrugno and colleagues from the University of Bologna, Italy, the disease had damaged the pair’s brains to such an extent that they had entered status dissociatus, a kind of twilight zone in which the boundaries between sleep and wakefulness completely break down (Sleep Medicine, vol 10, p 247).

That this can happen contradicts the way we usually think about sleep, but it came as no surprise to Mark Mahowald, medical director of the Minnesota Regional Sleep Disorders Center in Minneapolis, who has long contested the dogma that sleep and wakefulness are discrete and distinct states. “There is now overwhelming evidence that the primary states of being are not mutually exclusive,” he says. The blurring of sleep and wakefulness is very clear in status dissociatus, but he believes it can happen to us all. If he is right, we will have to rethink our understanding of what sleep is and what it is for. Maybe wakefulness is not the all-or-nothing phenomenon we thought it was either.

Received wisdom has it that at any given time, healthy people are in one of three states of vigilance: awake, in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep or in non-REM (NREM) sleep. Each state is distinct and can be recognised by a characteristic pattern of brain activity, as measured by an electroencephalogram (EEG) (see chart, right). Wakefulness is easy to detect. Apart from the fact that a person’s eyes are open and they are responsive, their EEG shows a pattern of high-frequency, low-amplitude waves. NREM sleep is divided into four stages, each of which has its own distinctive EEG pattern. REM is trickier to spot because in EEG terms it closely resembles stage 1 NREM sleep. So to be sure it really is REM, researchers also look for the telltale rapid eye movements and a slackening in the muscles of the chin and jaw.

Mahowald is not the only person to have questioned these neat distinctions. David Dinges, a psychiatrist at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, has probably deprived more people of sleep in the name of science than anyone else. In one such study in the late 1980s, Dinges and his team revealed how easily the different states of vigilance can become intermingled. When volunteers were subjected to tests of working memory in which they had to subtract numbers, they could do an average of 90 sums in 3 minutes with few errors. After 52 hours deprived of sleep, their performance fell to around 70 subtractions, with not many more errors. However, after they had slept for 2 hours the change was dramatic. “When we woke them up abruptly, and they rated themselves as alert and ready to go, they couldn’t do even one subtraction,” says Dinges. People even seemed to be dreaming as they attempted the task. One subject mused: “What if people ran faster than normal people run home,” in the middle of a string of incorrect responses.

Known as sleep inertia, a less extreme version of such disorientation is now generally recognised as the cause of the grogginess some people get after their alarm clock goes off. It is as if they are socially awake but functionally asleep; as if the brain circuits underlying responsiveness are up and running, but those mediating working memory are still offline. Mahowald is convinced that it is just one of many disorders that can be explained as a breakdown in the boundaries between sleep and wakefulness. He lists a whole raft of such conditions in the same issue of Sleep Medicine as Vetrugno’s description of people with status dissociatus (vol 10, p 159).

One is REM behavioural disorder (RBD), in which people in REM sleep act out their dreams because the temporary paralysis, or cataplexy, that normally accompanies this state is replaced by the full mobility of wakefulness. In sleep paralysis the opposite is true. Here, cataplexy intrudes into wakefulness, and a person wakes to find him or herself unable to move. It is estimated that up to 40 per cent of people have experienced this disturbing phenomenon. Also surprisingly common are hypnagogic hallucinations – sensory illusions that occur on the cusp of sleep when the dreaming component of REM intrudes into wakefulness. Mahowald’s list also includes sleepwalking, night terrors and narcolepsy, which is an inherent instability in vigilance state boundaries characterised by rapid cycling between states and the tendency to fall asleep mid-sentence. Controversially, the list also includes near-death experiences and alien abductions. It is no coincidence, he says, that alien abductions almost always occur in the recumbent position, in the transition from wakefulness to sleep.

It is no coincidence that alien abductions tend to occur in the transition from wakefulness to sleep

Sleep is a highly complex phenomenon in which changes in sensory, muscular, hormonal and neural systems must be coordinated to create a particular state of vigilance. “When you think about it, there are billions of people in the world who are shifting between wakefulness, REM and non-REM multiple times every 24 hours,” says Mahowald. “It’s amazing that the switching is as accurate as it is.” This accuracy suggests that there is a strong adaptive drive to be fully in one state or another. But he also thinks that state dissociation – the presence of more than one vigilance state concurrently – is more common than anyone previously suspected.

The boundaries between sleep and wakefulness are particularly blurred when we are sleep-deprived. Around a decade ago, Dinges realised that although his sleep-deprived volunteers seemed to be awake, they were in fact experiencing momentary lapses, or microsleeps. Since then, he has discovered that these fleeting naps last between half a second and 2 seconds, and become increasingly frequent the longer we are deprived of sleep, until finally we cannot recover and nod off. Dinges sees them as the outward sign of a tug-of-war between neural systems that are trying to initiate sleep, and others that are trying to maintain wakefulness.

This chimes with the ideas of James Krueger of Washington State University in Pullman, who has argued that the individual processing units in the brain – known as cortical columns – fall asleep independently when they become tired. In his view, shifts between wakefulness and sleep occur when enough columns are in one state or the other (Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol 9, p 910). Krueger believes this mosaic pattern of sleep explains sleep inertia and sleepwalking.

Some people are more prone to microsleeps than others. In a 2007 study, Dinges and his colleagues showed that there are enormous differences in people’s ability to resist the lure of sleep when tired. Among a group of healthy, non-sleep-deprived adults, the differences in alertness are small. “But as soon as we provoke the system with some sleep deprivation, those differences get larger and larger,” he says (Journal of Sleep Research, vol 16, p 170).

This has implications for all of us, especially those in professions where staying awake is a life-or-death matter. “If you’re doing 100 kilometres per hour on a highway and you have a lapse, your fingers go lax on the steering wheel and you drift off the road at a 4-degree angle,” says Dinges. “Two seconds is all it takes to be completely out of your lane.” Up to 20 per cent of traffic accidents are fatigue-related.

Brain imaging has recently revealed a mental back-up system in people who remain alert when sleep-deprived (Journal of Neuroscience, vol 29, p 7948). While other people have reduced brain activity when tired, sleep-resistant individuals manage to maintain their brain activity levels. More interestingly, they also recruit new areas to help compensate for having been awake for so long. These people were selected for the study because they had a gene variant found in around 40 per cent of people that is thought to be associated with resistance to sleep deprivation. It seems likely that such people are also less prone to state dissociation, although this has not yet been tested.

Another group who appear to be more vigilant than most are people who suffer from primary insomnia – insomnia not associated with any other condition. There is evidence to suggest they are in a constant state of hyperarousal, with relatively high metabolic rates and high levels of the stress hormone cortisol. “It’s as though somebody just cranked up their alertness over 24 hours, so they are more alert at night, but they are also more alert in the day,” says Mahowald.

As the blur between sleep and wakefulness becomes more widely accepted, researchers are devising techniques for capturing the brain’s fleeting lapses and vacillations. For example, neuroscientist Giulio Tononi of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, is eavesdropping on sleeping brains using EEGs with 256 electrodes rather than the more usual 32, to improve spatial resolution and help him catch the brain in the act of mosaic napping. Microsleeps are just the tip of the iceberg, Tononi says. He is particularly concerned by the possibility that parts of our brain might be going offline without us even realising it. “In many respects, it would be like having a temporary mental disorder without anybody, including yourself, being aware of it,” he says. Forgetfulness and daydreaming could be examples of this, but so could more bizarre and even criminal behaviours (see “When a crime is not a crime”).

It is like having a temporary mental disorder without anyone, including yourself, being aware of it.’

 

For full article, click here.

 

So, first we have microexpressions, where humans leak emotional expressions at a rapid speed (less than 1/3 of a second).

 

Now we have microsleeps, where we catch a 1-2 second snooze to rest the brain.

 

What’s next…micro-sex? Oh, wait, I’ve done that already (pre-premature arousal)! :>)

 

Say, I could use some 1 second micro-eating!

 

How about some grueling 3 second micro-exercise routines?

 

What new micro-routines can you come up with – real or imagined?

 

Have a great day!

John Schinnerer, Ph.D.

Positive Psychology Coach

Guide To Self, Inc.

www.GuideToSelf.com

 

How Everyone Can Raise Extraordinary Children – Seminar in San Ramon, CA

November 21, 2009

Dougherty Valley Performing Arts Center

San Ramon, CA

 

Top Experts Explore Techniques to Maximize Your Child’s:

  • Academic Performance
  • Interpersonal Skills
  • Self Esteem
  • Health
  • Hidden Talents
  • And Much More!

LIVE Event Speakers!

Jack CanfieldJack Canfield
Self-Esteem Expert & Best Selling Author: Chicken Soup for the Soul Series
Topic: Raising Children with Positive Self-Esteem

Teri KhonsariTerri Khonsari
Founder of Great Parenting Academy & Best Selling Author: Raising A Superstar
Topic: Raising A Well Balanced Child: Happy, Healthy, Responsible and Successful

Dr. Brenda WadeDr. Brenda Wade
Child Psychologist & Best Selling Author: Power Choices: 7
Signposts on Your Journey to Wholeness; Love Lessons
Topic: Discover Your Child’s Unique Genius

janet Attwodd Janet Attwood
Educator and Best Selling Author: The Passion Test
Topic: Helping Your Child Find His / Her Passion and Live a Passionate Life

 

 

This may be a great full day seminar to check out for parents in the San Ramon Valley. I just got off the phone with Terri. Sounds like time well spent!

All the best,

 

John Schinnerer, Ph.D.

Positive psychology coach

Guide To Self, Inc.